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  1. added 2020-08-01
    Cognitive Skills in Philosophy.Steven James Bartlett - 1978-1979 - Aitia 6 (3):12-21.
    Two fundamentally distinct approaches to the teaching of philosophy are contrasted: On the one hand, there is the “information-oriented” approach which has dominated classrooms and which emphasizes the understanding of historically important philosophical works. On the other hand, there is the “cognitive skills” approach. The two approaches may be distinguished under the headings of ‘knowing that’ as opposed to ‘knowing how’. This paper describes and discusses four perspectives relating to the teaching of cognitive skills: (i) the discovery-oriented approach, (ii) Piagetian (...)
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  2. added 2020-07-31
    Philosophy as Conceptual Therapy.Steven James Bartlett - 1983 - Educational Resources Information Center (ED 224 402):1-9.
    The author distinguishes between the “information-oriented” approach of conservative, traditional philosophy, and an approach to philosophy as “conceptual therapy.” The former emphasizes scholarship, textual explication and criticism, and, in general, a knowledge of the views of traditional thinkers. Philosophy as conceptual therapy, on the other hand, seeks an improvement of intellectual skills, and fosters a therapy for concepts and, by inference, a therapy for thinkers. The major concern of the paper is to argue that the traditional information-oriented approach to philosophy (...)
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  3. added 2020-07-29
    Fine-Tuning Divine Indifference.Chris Dorst & Kevin Dorst - manuscript
    Given the laws of our universe, the initial conditions and cosmological constants had to be "fine-tuned" to result in life. Is this evidence for design? We argue that we should be uncertain whether an ideal agent would take it to be so—but that given such uncertainty, we should react to fine-tuning by boosting our confidence in design. The degree to which we should do so depends on our credences in controversial metaphysical issues.
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  4. added 2020-07-26
    The Moral Psychology of Curiosity.Ilhan Inan, Lani Watson, Dennis Whitcomb & Safiye Yigit (eds.) - 2018 - Rowman & Littlefield International.
  5. added 2020-07-08
    Quantum Mechanics and its Epistemological Implications.Antonio Portaluri - 2014 - Milano MI, Italia: Psiche e Realtà - Tecniche Nuove.
    On October 24th, 1927, the world's most important physicists met in Brussels for what is known as the fifth edition of the Solvay Conference. The focus of the discussion was the new Quantum Mechanics, to which most of the people present at the meeting had contributed but about which they had contrasting opinions. On the one hand, Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg claimed they had provided the new science with a definite structure, not subject to further modifications, while on the (...)
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  6. added 2020-07-07
    The Language Essence of Rational Cognition, with Some Philosophical Consequences.Boris Culina - manuscript
    This article analyses the essential role of language in rational cognition. The approach is functional -- I only look at the effects of the connection between language, reality and thinking. I begin by analysing rational cognition in everyday situations. Then I show that the whole scientific language is an extension and improvement of everyday language. The result is a uniform view of language and rational cognition which solves many epistemological and ontological problems. I use some of them -- the nature (...)
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  7. added 2020-07-03
    On the Untrustworthiness of Axiomatic-Founded Science.Spyridon Kakos - 2020 - Harmonia Philosophica.
    The idea of science being the best – or the only – way to reach the truth about our cosmos has been a major belief of modern civilization. Yet, science has grown tall on fragile legs of clay. Every scientific theory uses axioms and assumptions that by definition cannot be proved. This poses a serious limitation to the use of science as a tool to find the truth. The only way to search for the latter is to redefine the former (...)
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  8. added 2020-06-30
    Epistemic Autonomy and Externalism.J. Adam Carter - 2020 - In Kirk Lougheed & Jonathan Matheson (eds.), Epistemic Autonomy. London: Routledge.
    The philosophical significance of attitudinal autonomy—viz., the autonomy of attitudes such as beliefs—is widely discussed in the literature on moral responsibility and free will. Within this literature, a key debate centres around the following question: is the kind of attitudinal autonomy that’s relevant to moral responsibility at a given time determined entirely by a subject’s present mental structure at that time? Internalists say ‘yes’, externalists say ’no’. In this essay, I motivate a kind of distinctly epistemic attitudinal autonomy, attitudinal autonomy (...)
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  9. added 2020-06-22
    Physics Does It Better: So Why Be Afraid of Philosophy?Livio De Fabrizio - unknown
    Physics is the best tool to investigate nature ("physics does it better") and philosophy, far from being a competitor, is a companion in its quest for knowledge ("so why be afraid of philosophy?"). In this article it is observed that the anti-philosophical positions within the modern scientific community come from misconceptions and that scientists can't be "against philosophy". As a conclusion, the expressions "laws of physics" and "laws of nature" are discussed.
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  10. added 2020-06-17
    Moral Virtues with Epistemic Content.Mona Simion, Christoph Kelp, Cameron Boult & Johanna Schnurr - forthcoming - In C. Kelp & J. Greco (eds.), Virtue-Theoretic Epistemology: New Methods and Approaches. Cambridge University Press.
    The investigation of epistemic virtues, such as curiosity, open-mindedness, intellectual courage and intellectual humility is a growing trend in epistemology. An underexplored question in this context is: what is the relationship between these virtues and other types of virtue, such as moral or prudential virtue? This paper argues that, although there is an intuitive sense in which virtues such as intellectual courage and open-mindedness have something to do with the epistemic domain, on closer inspection it is not clear to what (...)
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  11. added 2020-06-16
    On Ian Hacking’s Notion of Style of Reasoning.Luca Sciortino - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (2):243-264.
    The analytical notion of ‘scientific style of reasoning’, introduced by Ian Hacking in the middle of the 1980s, has become widespread in the literature of the history and philosophy of science. However, scholars have rarely made explicit the philosophical assumptions and the research objectives underlying the notion of style: what are its philosophical roots? How does the notion of style fit into the area of research of historical epistemology? What does a comparison between Hacking’s project on styles of thinking and (...)
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  12. added 2020-06-16
    Dibattito su L'autocritique de la science con Levy-Lebrond.Ludovico Geymonat - 1973 - Scientia 7.
  13. added 2020-06-06
    Immediate Certainty and the Morally Good: Luther, Kierkegaard and Cognitive Psychology.Jörg Disse - 2020 - In Marius Timmann Mjaaland (ed.), The Reformation of Philosophy. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. pp. 109-118.
    I consider the relationship between the notion of certainty and the notion of a form of life. There are circumstances under which a feeling of certainty may become the ground for adopting a certain form of life. The forms of life I have in mind are those with a formal orientation towards the realization of the (morally) good for its own sake. The article proceeds in three steps: First I consider Luther’s certainty of salvation as a kind of inaugural (theological) (...)
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  14. added 2020-06-06
    Considerazioni sullo statuto epistemologico della psicanalisi e i suoi rapporti con l'incertezza, in Elogio dell'incertezza.Saggi psicoanalitici. A cura di Giuseppe Craparo.Donato Santarcangelo - 2016 - Milano MI, Italia: Mimesis, filosofia.
    We consider essential the need to integrate the causalistic nomothetic scientific approach with an unavoidable acausal finalistic approach. We come to consider too that it is precisely the psychoanalytic sphere that contributes decisively to this redefinition within the epistemology of science.
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  15. added 2020-06-05
    L'imperioso richiamo ad orientarsi. 2.Le ombre nella luce orientale.Donato Santarcangelo & Tiziano Cantalupi - 2004 - Torino TO, Italia: Psiche e Realtà - Tirrenia Stampatori.
    “Anima naturaliter christiana” (Anima naturalmente cristiana) così si esprimeva per Tertulliano, e per Jung questo vale in senso psicologico, per noi occidentali: “Per lui (l’occidentale) l’uomo interiormente è infimo… cerca di propiziarsi quella grande potenza (Dio), mediante il timore, la penitenza, le promesse, la sottomissione, l’autoumiliazione… la grande potenza non è egli stesso, bensì… l’interamente altro, assolutamente perfetto ed esterno, l’unica realtà… (per l’orientale) La psiche è perciò la cosa più importante, è il respiro che tutto penetra… Tutta la vita (...)
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  16. added 2020-06-03
    L'imperioso richiamo ad orientarsi. 3. L’oriente dell’occidente: la tradizione occulta.Donato Santarcangelo & Tiziano Cantalupi - 2004 - Torino TO, Italia: Psiche e Realtà - Tirrenia Stampatori.
    Il salto epistemologico che il pensiero junghiano ci consente di fare, si permette di trattare gli argomenti religiosi, metafisici, ecc. in un’ottica che è diverso sia dall’atteggiamento giocoforza riduttivo della scienza che non può approcciarli per via del suo linguaggio specifico, se non in maniera dell’aut-aut, esiste-non esiste, vero-non vero, senza poterne cogliere l’importante significato simbolico e psicologico, sia dall’atteggiamento intrinsecamente religioso.
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  17. added 2020-05-29
    Philosophical Method.Russell Marcus - 2019 - The Philosophers' Magazine 85:62-67.
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  18. added 2020-05-28
    Knowledge and Content: Critique of David Miller.Danny Frederick - manuscript
    David Miller propounds a theory of objective knowledge from which he mistakenly derives some consequences about question-begging and persuasion that appear to be false. He makes a further claim about persuasion that also seems false. I argue that Miller’s account of objective knowledge is explanatorily weak unless supplemented with an account of subjective knowledge and that the latter enables us to extricate Miller’s theory from the falsehoods he associates with it.
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  19. added 2020-05-24
    Regularity and Certainty in Hume’s Treatise: A Humean Response to Husserl.Stefanie Rocknak - forthcoming - Synthese:1-22.
    According to Husserl, Hume’s empirical method was deeply flawed—like all empiricists, Hume did not, and could not adequately justify his method, much less his findings. Instead, Hume gives us a “circular” and “irrational” “psychological explanation” of “mediate judgments of fact,” i.e. of inductive inferences. Yet Husserl was certain that he could justify both his own method and his own findings with an appeal to the phenomenological, pre-theoretical, pre-naturalistic “epoché”. However, whether or not Husserl’s notion of an epoché is justified, or (...)
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  20. added 2020-05-12
    Biologische Bedeutung des Erkennens Und Pragmatismus.Wilhelm Burkamp - 1913 - Philosophical Review 22:453.
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  21. added 2020-05-12
    Die Moderne Energetik in Ihrer Bedeutung Fur Die Erkenntnisskritik.K. Lasswitz - 1893 - Philosophical Review 2:241.
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  22. added 2020-05-11
    Grundlagen der Erkenntnisstheorie. [REVIEW]Frank Thilly - 1901 - Philosophical Review 10 (6):682-683.
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  23. added 2020-05-09
    Na dança das imbricações ou uma coreografia materialista: o discurso nas fronteiras.Guilherme Adorno - 2019 - In O discurso nas fronteiras do social. Campinas, Brasil: Pontes. pp. 115-132.
    Em Na dança das imbricações ou uma coreografia materialista: o discurso nas fronteiras, presto minha homenagem à Suzy Lagazzi a partir de um gesto que me fez retornar a diferentes textos da homenageada. Nesse retorno, chamo atenção para o batimento entre o direito e a análise de diferentes materialidades significantes que permeia a obra de Lagazzi, e se detém no modo como o significante “imbricação” marca o percurso teórico analisado, de maneira especial no que concerne à “imbricação do político junto (...)
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  24. added 2020-04-17
    The Cicada Catcher: Learning for Life.Karyn L. Lai - 2019 - In Karyn L. Lai & Wai-wai Chiu (eds.), Skill and Mastery Philosophical Stories from the Zhuangzi. UK: Rowman and Littlefield International. pp. 143 - 162.
    The cicada catcher focuses as much on technique as he does on outcomes. In response to Confucius’ question, he articulates in detail the learning he has undertaken to develop techniques at each level of competence. This chapter explains the connection between the cicada catcher’s development of technique and his orientation toward outcomes. It uses details in this story to contribute to recent discussions in epistemology on the cultivation of technique.
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  25. added 2020-04-17
    Zhuangzi's Suggestiveness: Skeptical Questions.Karyn L. Lai - 2017 - In Stephen Hetherington (ed.), What Makes a Philosopher Great? London and NY: Routledge. pp. 30-47.
  26. added 2020-04-17
    Knowing How and Knowing To.Karyn L. Lai & Stephen Hetherington - 2015 - In Brian Bruya (ed.), The Philosophical Challenge from China. MA, USA: MIT Press. pp. 279 - 302.
    Since the 1940s, Western epistemology has discussed Gilbert Ryle’s distinction between knowledge-that and knowledge-how. Ryle argued that intelligent actions – manifestations of knowledge-how – are not constituted as intelligent by the guiding intervention of knowledge-that: knowledge-how is not a kind of knowledge-that; we must understand knowledge-how in independent terms. Yet which independent terms are needed? In this chapter, we consider whether an understanding of intelligent action must include talk of knowledge-to. This is the knowledge to do this or that now, (...)
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  27. added 2020-03-28
    Resolving the Raven Paradox: Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Random Sampling, and Inference to the Best Explanation.Barry Ward - manuscript
    We object to standard, simple random sampling resolutions of the raven paradox on the grounds that they relevantly diverge from scientific practice. In response, we develop a stratified random sampling model. It provides a better fit and apparently rehabilitates simple random sampling resolutions as legitimate idealizations of that practice. However, neither simple nor stratified models fare well with a second concern, the objection from potential bias. In response, we develop a third model on which we systematically check kinds of ways (...)
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  28. added 2020-03-27
    Mapping Identity Prejudice: Locations of Epistemic Injustice in Philosophy for/with Children.Peter Paul Ejera Elicor - 2020 - Childhood and Philosophy 16 (1):1-25.
    This article aims to map the locations of identity prejudice that occurs in the context of a Community of Inquiry. My claim is that epistemic injustice, which usually originates from seemingly ‘minor’ cases of identity prejudice, can potentially leak into the actual practice of P4wC. Drawing from Fricker, the various forms of epistemic injustice are made explicit when epistemic practices are framed within concrete social circumstances where power, privilege and authority intersect, which is observable in school settings. In connection, despite (...)
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  29. added 2020-03-23
    Epistemic Trespassing.Nathan Ballantyne - 2019 - Mind 128 (510):367-395.
    Epistemic trespassers judge matters outside their field of expertise. Trespassing is ubiquitous in this age of interdisciplinary research and recognizing this will require us to be more intellectually modest.
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  30. added 2020-03-17
    Epistemologia Analítica: Debates Contemporâneos.Tiegue Vieira Rodrigues (ed.) - 2019 - Porto Alegre: Editora Fi.
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  31. added 2020-02-17
    Agnosticism, Inquiry, and Unanswerable Questions.Avery Archer - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (53):63-88.
    In her paper “Why Suspend Judging?” Jane Friedman has argued that being agnostic about some question entails that one has an inquiring attitude towards that question. Call this the agnostic-as-inquirer thesis. I argue that the agnostic-as-inquirer thesis is implausible. Specifically, I maintain that the agnostic-as-inquirer thesis requires that we deny the existence of a kind of agent that plausibly exists; namely, one who is both agnostic about Q because they regard their available evidence as insufficient for answering Q and who (...)
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  32. added 2020-02-13
    De Canguilhem a Foucault, em torno da Psicologia.Marcio Miotto - 2019 - Cadernos de Ética E Filosofia Política 2 (35):112-142.
    O presente trabalho pretende comparar o debate ocorrido entre Georges Canguilhem e Robert Pagès em Qu’est-ce que la Psychologie?, de 1956, com os escritos de Michel Foucault publicados nos anos 1950. Para isso, após alguns apontamentos históricos, faz-se uma breve análise dos textos de Foucault publicados em 1954, Maladie Mentale et Personnalité e a Introduction à Le Rêve et l’Existence. Os textos de Foucault são então confrontados com o debate entre Canguilhem e Robert Pagès, que por sua vez são analisados (...)
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  33. added 2020-02-12
    Elements of Epistemology.D. W. Gotshalk - 1931 - Journal of Philosophy 28 (24):667-668.
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  34. added 2020-02-11
    The Value of Knowledge and the Pursuit of Understanding.Michael Huemer - 2004 - Mind 113 (452):763-766.
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  35. added 2020-02-08
    Truth and Ignorance.Brent G. Kyle - 2020 - Synthese:1-24.
    I argue that the Standard View of ignorance is at odds with the claim that knowledge entails truth. In particular, if knowledge entails truth then we cannot explain away some apparent absurdities that arise from the Standard View of ignorance. I then discuss a modified version of the Standard View, which simply adds a truth requirement to the original Standard View. I show that the two main arguments for the original Standard View fail to support this modified view.
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  36. added 2020-02-08
    Towards a Sensible Evidentialism.Stephen Wykstra - 1989 - In William Rowe & William J. Wainwright (eds.), Philosophy of Religion: Selected Readings. Harcourt College Publishers. pp. 426-437.
  37. added 2020-02-07
    New Work For Certainty.Bob Beddor - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (8).
    This paper argues that we should assign certainty a central place in epistemology. While epistemic certainty played an important role in the history of epistemology, recent epistemology has tended to dismiss certainty as an unattainable ideal, focusing its attention on knowledge instead. I argue that this is a mistake. Attending to certainty attributions in the wild suggests that much of our everyday knowledge qualifies, in appropriate contexts, as certain. After developing a semantics for certainty ascriptions, I put certainty to explanatory (...)
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  38. added 2020-02-03
    The Ontic Probability Interpretation of Quantum Theory - Part I: The Meaning of Einstein's Incompleteness Claim.Felix Alba-Juez - manuscript
    Ignited by Einstein and Bohr a century ago, the philosophical struggle about Reality is yet unfinished, with no signs of a swift resolution. Despite vast technological progress fueled by the iconic EPR paper (EPR), the intricate link between ontic and epistemic aspects of Quantum Theory (QT) has greatly hindered our grip on Reality and further progress in physical theory. Fallacies concealed by tortuous logical negations made EPR comprehension much harder than it could have been had Einstein written it himself in (...)
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  39. added 2020-01-21
    Varieties of Anti-Representationalism.Pietro Salis - 2020 - In Pedro G. Moreira (ed.), Revisiting Richard Rorty. Wilmington: Vernon Press. pp. 115-134.
    Anti-representationalism is the hallmark of Richard Rorty's critique of the epistemological tradition. According to it, knowledge does not "mirror" reality and the human mind is not a representational device. Anti-representationalism is a family of philosophical theses, respectively dealing with the notion of "representation" in different ways. Though prima facie one may feel entitled to think about anti-representationalism as a kind of uniform philosophical movement, things stand quite differently. In fact, among many anti-representationalist options, we can identify two main versions: a (...)
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  40. added 2020-01-18
    Evidentialism as an Historical Theory.Jeremy Fantl - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-14.
    According to time-slice epistemology, what attitudes you should have at a time supervenes on features of you—like your evidence or mental states—at that time. Evidentialism is commonly assumed to be an instance of time-slice epistemology. I argue that if an influential argument against time-slice epistemology—that responding to evidence takes time—is sound, evidentialism is not an instance of time-slice epistemology. Therefore, evidentialism survives that argument even if time-slice epistemology doesn’t. Evidentialists must say that your evidence at a time is what can (...)
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  41. added 2020-01-04
    Where Opposites Meet: Mathematics Between Science And Humanities.Ivano Zanzarella - 2019 - Scienza E Filosofia 22:302-321.
    The connection between science and mathematics is often considered necessary and insoluble. Therefore, a relationship between mathematics and humanities or arts is deemed exceptional or sometimes unnatural. Nevertheless, on the basis of historical, ontological and epistemological researches it can be noted that it’s impossible to warrant the immediate identification between mathematics and sciences on a deeper level than the practical one. Given the instrumentality and then the unnecessity of this connection, the relationship between mathematics and not-scientific disciplines is undeniable, even (...)
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  42. added 2020-01-03
    Special Issue of EuJAP: Free Will and Epistemology.Robert Lockie, László Bernáth, András Szigeti & Timothy O’Connor - 2019 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 15 (2):5-12.
    Preface to the Special Issue on Free Will and Epistemology written by Robert Lockie.
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  43. added 2020-01-01
    Knowledge Is (Still) the Norm of Assertion.Kok Yong Lee - 2017 - NCCU Philosophical Journal 37:33-74.
    In this paper, I defend the thesis that knowledge is the norm of assertion. I first examine three prominent “counterexamples”: false assertion, selfless assertion, and assertion based on mere justified true belief. I argue that they all fail to square well with our ordinary intuitions. However, the contemporary debate over the norm of assertion depends heavily on the method of counterexamples, whose crux is to prompt our intuitions regarding the appropriateness (or inappropriateness) of a certain kind of assertions. This method (...)
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  44. added 2019-10-20
    Quine on the Analytic/Synthetic Distinction.Stefanie Rocknak - 2013 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    An overview of Quine's understanding of the analytic/synthetic distinction, especially as it is conveyed in his paper, "The Two Dogmas of Empiricism.".
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  45. added 2019-10-20
    The Construction of Relations in Hume and Quine, Directed by Jaakko Hintikka (Introduction).Stefanie A. Rocknak - 1999 - Dissertation, Boston University
    Hume and Quine argue that human beings do not have access to general knowledge, that is, to general truths . The arguments of these two philosophers are premised on what Jaakko Hintikka has called the atomistic postulate. In the present work, it is shown that Hume and Quine in fact sanction an extreme version of this postulate, according to which even items of particular knowledge are not directly accessible in so far as they are relational. For according to their fully (...)
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  46. added 2019-10-18
    Normative Reasons for Mentalism.Eva Schmidt - 2018 - In Christos Kyriacou & Robin McKenna (eds.), Metaepistemology: Realism and Anti-Realism. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 97-120.
    The aim of this paper is to connect the traditional epistemological issue of justification with what one might call the “new reasons paradigm” coming from the philosophy of action and metaethics. More specifically, I will show that Conee and Feldman’s mentalism, a version of internalism about justification, can profitably be spelled out in terms of subjective normative reasons. On the way to achieving this aim, I will argue that it is important to ask not just the oft-discussed ontological question about (...)
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  47. added 2019-10-08
    Epistemology.Elizabeth Jackson - forthcoming - In Paul Allen (ed.), The T&T Clark Encyclopedia of Christian Theology. New York: T&T Clark/Bloomsbury.
    Epistemology is the study of knowledge. This entry covers epistemology in two parts: one historical, one contemporary. The former provides a brief theological history of epistemology. The latter outlines three categories of contemporary epistemology: traditional epistemology, social epistemology, and formal epistemology, along with corresponding theological questions that arise in each.
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  48. added 2019-10-03
    How Rational Level-Splitting Beliefs Can Help You Respond to Moral Disagreement.Margaret Greta Turnbull & Eric Sampson - 2020 - In Michael Klenk (ed.), Higher Order Evidence and Moral Epistemology. New York: Routledge.
    We provide a novel defense of the possibility of level-splitting beliefs and use this defense to show that the steadfast response to peer disagreement is not, as it is often claimed to be, unnecessarily dogmatic. To provide this defense, a neglected form of moral disagreement is analysed. Within the context of this particular kind of moral disagreement, a similarly neglected form of level-splitting belief is identified and then defended from critics of the rationality of level-splitting beliefs. The chapter concludes by (...)
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  49. added 2019-09-23
    Parsimony and Predictive Equivalence.Elliott Sober - 1996 - Erkenntnis 44 (2):167 - 197.
    If a parsimony criterion may be used to choose between theories that make different predictions, may the same criterion be used to choose between theories that are predictively equivalent? The work of the statistician H. Akaike (1973) is discussed in connection with this question. The results are applied to two examples in which parsimony has been invoked to choose between philosophical theories-Shoemaker's (1969) discussion of the possibility of time without change and the discussion by Smart (1959) and Brandt and Kim (...)
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  50. added 2019-09-09
    The Facts. Just the Facts.William M. Goodman - manuscript
    Although at first glance, “facts” are the paradigms of straightforwardness, something about facts seems to invite perpetual controversy and dichotomizing. Innumerable bifurcations on the topic have included "Facts vs. Theories”, “Facts vs. Appearance”, "Facts vs. Values", ... and, popular nowadays, "(Real)Facts vs. Fake Facts". This paper most aligns with the facts vs. theories model, so far as whatever facts are, theories seem to be constructed stories that are necessary for connecting and interpreting the facts. Yet the boundary between the two (...)
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