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Summary The epistemology of religion covers the varied epistemological questions that may be posed concerning religious belief; it thus lies at the intersection of epistemology and philosophy of religion. Traditional issues include the rationality of religious belief/disbelief, the nature of evidence for and against theism, whether and under what circumstances knowledge of God (if there is one) is possible, the roles of religious experience or revelation or testimony in supporting religious belief, whether arguments or evidence are needed to support religious belief (see 'reformed epistemology' subcategory, as well as work on fideism), the nature of 'faith' (in both religious and non-religious contexts), and the epistemological consequences of disagreement on religious questions.
Key works A handful of philosophers have been most important in shaping the recent literature on the rationality of religious belief: see especially the collection edited by Alvin Plantinga and Nicholas Wolterstorff (Plantinga & Wolterstorff 1983), and book-length treatments Plantinga 1967, Swinburne 1977, Swinburne 1996, Plantinga 2000, Alston 1991, plus the collections Wolterstorff 2010 and VanArragon & Clark 2011. For criticism see Mackie 1982Sobel 2003Schellenberg 2007. For recent work on faith, see  Buchak 2012Howard-Snyder 2013, and Buchak 2014; for epistemological issues in debates over arguments from evil and suffering, see Benton et al 2016; and for discussions of disagreement and religious belief, see Oppy 2010, Pittard 2015 and Pittard 2019, Dormandy 2018, and Benton forthcoming. For important historical considerations, see Coakley 2009 and Coakley 2013. For newer work, see Benton et al 2018, Benton 2018, and Dormandy forthcoming.
Introductions Clark 2004, Forrest 2008Dastmalchian 2013, Smith 2014, Tweedt & Dougherty 2015, and Dunaway & Hawthorne 2017.
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  1. Ricoeur on Truth in Religious Discourse: A Reclamation.Patrick Casey - 2019 - Horizons 46 (1):24-52.
    The fields of comparative theology and interreligious dialogue have largely presupposed the possibility of interreligious learning, but there have been few attempts to provide a philosophical framework for such learning. Utilizing the philosophical hermeneutics of Paul Ricoeur, I argue that evaluations of religious truth should be understood holistically and contextually. In interreligious engagements, tensions are created in and questions are raised for one’s own worldview. If one proceeds to imaginatively enter into another’s worldview and finds resources there that enable one (...)
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  2. On the Conversion of Philosophy: The Problems and Promise of Emmanuel Falque’s Theology of Philosophy.Christopher J. King - forthcoming - Heythrop Journal.
  3. Evidence and Explanation in Cicero's On Divination.Frank Cabrera - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 82:34-43.
    In this paper, I examine Cicero’s oft-neglected De Divinatione, a dialogue investigating the legitimacy of the practice of divination. First, I offer a novel analysis of the main arguments for divination given by Quintus, highlighting the fact that he employs two logically distinct argument forms. Next, I turn to the first of the main arguments against divination given by Marcus. Here I show, with the help of modern probabilistic tools, that Marcus’ skeptical response is far from the decisive, proto-naturalistic assault (...)
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  4. Incarnate Knowing: The Epistemology of John Henry Newman.David C. Paternostro - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (5):800-811.
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  5. A Constructive Thomistic Response to Heidegger’s Destructive Criticism: On Existence, Essence and the Possibility of Truth as Adequation.Liran Shia Gordon & Avital Wohlman - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (5):825-841.
  6. Anecdotal Pluralism, Total Evidence and Religious Diversity.Daniele Bertini - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-19.
    My main claim is that, contrary to the assumptions of mainstream literature, epistemic religious diversity is not a matter of an abstract comparison among the belief systems of different religions or denominations; rather, it is a relation arising from the epistemic encounter among individuals who adhere to different doxastic groups. Particularly, while epistemic symmetry inclines to treat our doxastic opponents as peers, epistemic peerhood is not the starting point of doctrinal comparisons, but the potential outcome of the epistemic process of (...)
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  7. Editorial preface.R. L. Hall - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (1):1-3.
  8. The Talmudist Enlightenment: Talmudic Judaism’s Confrontational Rational Theology.Menachem Fisch - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (2):37-63.
    Robert Brandom's "The Pragmatist Enlightenment" describes the advent of American pragmatism as signaling a sea-change in our understanding of human reason away from the top-down Euclidian models of reasoning, warrant and knowledge inspired by the physical sciences, toward the far more bottom-up, narrative, inherently fallible and dialogical forms of reasoning of the life and human sciences. It is against this backdrop that Talmudic Judaism emerges not only as an early anticipation of the pragmatist enlightenment, but as going a substantial and (...)
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  9. The Epistemic Significance of Agreement with Exceptional Theistic Philosophers.Felipe Miguel - forthcoming - Faith and Philosophy 37 (4).
    Suppose that you realize that a substantial majority of the most important philosophers of all time agreed with you on p. Intuitively, you have gained additional evidence in favor of p and you should increase your confidence that p is true. It turns out, a large number of the most important philosophers of all time (in fact, the vast majority, if we consider, as we will, a recent poll conducted with contemporary philosophers) were theists. In this paper, I explore the (...)
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  10. Das „Feindbild Bahai“ Im Wandel der Politischen Verhältnisse Im Iran.Armin Eschraghi - 2020 - Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 72 (3):311-344.
    The Bahai Faith originated in 19th century Iran. Since the early days of its inception and up until today, in Iran the followers of the faith have been subject to persecution, carried out under different pretexts. A study of polemical anti-Bahai writings demonstrates that the accusations against Bahais evolved and in fact changed over time. The portrayal of the Bahais as “enemies” was reshaped and adapted time and again to current needs and ideological agendas. Anti-Bahaism, it is argued in this (...)
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  11. Akbar’s Dream.Adam J. T. Robarts - 2020 - Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 72 (3):345-356.
  12. Peace is Everything: An Examination of the Bahá’Í Faith’s Concept of Peace.Hoda Mahmoudi - 2020 - Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 72 (3):242-259.
    This paper describes the central role of peace in the Bahá’í Faith. For Bahá’ís, peace begins at the level of the individual and migrates outward to the community, nation, and the world. The article explains how the Bahá’í Faith outlines a covenant – an agreement between Bahá’ís and between Bahá’ís and the world – made manifest in an Administrative Order in which the ascertainment of peaceful principles and the establishment of peaceful practices are developed. The paper explains how concepts like (...)
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  13. Religious Moral Languages, Secularity, and Hermeneutical Injustice.Gorazd Andrejč - 2020 - In Dennis Vanden Auweele & Miklos Vassanyi (eds.), Past and Present Political Theology: Expanding the Canon. London, UK:
    As a philosophical approach to public moral discourse in a religiously plural society, Jeffrey Stout’s “modest pragmatism” has received a mixed response from the opposite sides of the secularism debate. While many political theologians and communitarians claim that Stout concedes too much to the secularists, some secularists, on the other hand, find Stout’s inclusive approach towards religious reasonings in public discourse all too “theological.” This essay offers a re-examination and a further analysis of modest pragmatism in the light of recent (...)
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  14. Ist „göttliche Wahrheit“ ein Relikt aus den Zeiten der Metaphysik?Godehard Brüntrup - 2018 - Herder Korrespondenz 72 (6):44-46.
    Ist Religion schon anmaßend und totalitär, wenn sie behauptet, dass es eine göttliche Wahrheit gebe? Impliziert eine solche Behauptung notwendig bereits einen „metaphysischen Realismus“, der im post-metaphysischen Zeitalter unhaltbar ist? Der klassische Theismus lässt sich gar nicht denken ohne die Annahme, dass es eine göttliche Wahrheit gibt. Das Christentum lässt sich nicht denken ohne die Annahme, dass göttliche Wahrheiten nach menschlichem Maß geoffenbart wurden .
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  15. Panpsychismus und Handeln Gottes.Godehard Brüntrup - 2017 - In Georg/ Jaskolla Gasser (ed.), Handbuch für analytische Theologie. Münster, Deutschland: pp. 917-947.
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  16. Revisiting Anselm on Time and Divine Eternity.Christopher A. Bobier - forthcoming - Heythrop Journal.
    How to understand Saint Anselm of Canterbury on time and divine eternity is subject to debate. Katherin Rogers argues that Anselm is a four‐dimensionalist, whereas Brian Leftow argues that he is a presentist. Despite the disagreement, both scholars assume that Anselm has a positive account of time and divine eternity to offer. I challenge this assumption, arguing that Anselm is not interested in offering an account of the metaphysics of time and divine eternity. The reading defended here is deflationary in (...)
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  17. His Royal I-Ness.Mark Glouberman - forthcoming - Philosophy and Theology.
    The theology of the (Hebrew) Bible, as set out in the Torah’s foundational parts, answers the question “What am I?” not the question “Why is there a world?” So the principle that the Bible’s deity, God, represents, the principle of a category of being not recognized in the pagan thinking whose basic elements Greek philosophy systematizes, first enters “In the day that . . . the Lord God formed [the] man,” not “In the beginning when God created the heavens and (...)
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  18. The ineffability of God.Omar Fakhri - forthcoming - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-17.
    I defend an account of God’s ineffability that depends on the distinction between fundamental and non-fundamental truths. I argue that although there are fundamentally true propositions about God, no creature can have them as the object of a propositional attitude, and no sentence can perfectly carve out their structures. Why? Because these propositions have non-enumerable structures. In principle, no creature can fully grasp God’s intrinsic nature, nor can they develop a language that fully describes it. On this account, the ineffability (...)
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  19. Who’s Right About Rights?William Hasker - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):209-212.
    My comment on Jim Sterba’s bookFootnote1 will consist in a critique of what I take to be the central argument of the book, an argument that a certain kind of evil that is prevalent in our world is logically inconsistent with the existence of a good God. For our purposes here, the argument can be summarized briefly; if my objection as given here succeeds, the entire argument will fail to establish its conclusion. It begins with a statement of an alleged (...)
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  20. Afterthoughts.William Hasker, Ronald L. Hall, Michael Tooley & James P. Sterba - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):229-243.
  21. Analyzing Sterba’s Argument.Michael Tooley - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):217-222.
  22. Editor's Page.James South - 2012 - Philosophy and Theology 24 (1):137-138.
  23. Early Catholic Education in Sydney: St Mary's Seminary.Graeme Pender - 2020 - The Australasian Catholic Record 97 (2):216.
    Pender, Graeme Two challenges facing Archbishop John Bede Polding after arriving in Sydney in 1835 were providing for the spiritual needs of Catholics in the colony and managing their affairs in a way that attempted to guarantee a good working relationship with the government. It became apparent to Polding that education was fundamental in developing both these areas. Polding regarded education as a means of social advancement, beneficial to those 'on the lower steps of the social scale'. He wanted a (...)
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  24. Quantum Psychoid Freewill ? Excerpt By.Donato Santarcangelo - 2014 - Milano MI, Italia: By: T. Cantalupi, D. Santarcangelo, Psiche e Realtà - Tecniche Nuove.
    What we've considered so far about the epistemology of human sciences comes up again as to the concept of "destiny''and human free will: who "must" tell us if we are destined or not? Either Neuroscientists or sociologists? Either Philosophers or biochemists? Has psychology anything to say? Do we need a pool to gather them all? Many other questions come up: what determines us and how much? ls there any sense in talking about destiny? We are a complex system and our (...)
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  25. The Common Consent Argument for the Existence of Nature Spirits.Tiddy Smith - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 98 (2):334-348.
    The traditional common consent argument for the existence of God has largely been abandoned—and rightly so. In this paper, I attempt to salvage the strongest version of the argument. Surprisingly,...
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  26. Unamuno and James on Religious Faith.Alberto Oya - 2020 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 39 (1):85-104.
    The aim of this paper is to argue against the received view among Unamuno scholars that Miguel de Unamuno was defending a sort of pragmatic argument for religious faith and that his notion of religious faith as “querer creer” (“wanting to believe”) is to be identified with William James’s “the will to believe”. As I will show in this paper, one of the aspects that makes Unamuno’s reasoning philosophically relevant is his ability to formulate a non-pragmatist defense of religious faith (...)
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  27. Review of Brian Hebblethwaite, Ethics and Religion in a Pluralistic Age. [REVIEW]Gary Chartier - 1998 - Andrews University Seminary Studies 36:128-31.
  28. Review of Richard Swinburne, Revelation. [REVIEW]Gary Chartier - 2008 - Theological Book Review 20:153-54.
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  29. Does the Soul's Sleep Generate the Reason? The Symbol's Compensatory Aspect at Quantum-Psychoid Matrix with Regard to the Reason's Unilateralism. Excerpt By.Donato Santarcangelo - 2014 - Milano MI, Italia: By: T. Cantalupi, D. Santarcangelo, Psiche e Realtà - Tecniche Nuove.
    A Symbol doesn't explain, says Jung. In fact it is beyond the dichotomy of the binary logic, that wants the limiting and restrictive diktat of the tertium non datur to be perpetuated so as to be obliged to choose between two possibilities being anyway on the same nomological axis.
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  30. Il concetto di autenticità in C.G. Jung e sue correlazioni col pensiero di M. Heidegger e le concezioni panpsichiste.Donato Santarcangelo - 2019 - L'ombra 11.
    In this pages the author suggests a spiritual interpretation of Jungian epistemology as a way towards authenticity. He also argues that Martin Heidegger's philosophy and panpsychism can confirm the possibility offered by Jung - with his alchemical - archetypical description of human nature - to achieve a deeper and more authentic awareness of our existence.
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  31. The World in Thirty‐Eight Chapters or Dr Johnson’s Guide to Life. By Henry Hitchings. Pp. Ix, 354, London: Macmillan, 2018, £16.99. [REVIEW]Patrick Madigan - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (3):558-559.
  32. Elizabeth Jennings: ‘The Inward War’. By Dana Greene. Pp. Xx, 258, Oxford University Press, 2018, £25.00.Patrick Madigan - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (3):586-587.
    Elizabeth Jennings was one of the most popular, prolific, and widely anthologized lyric poets in the second half of the twentieth century. This first biography, based on extensive archival research and interviews with Jennings's contemporaries, integrates her life and work and explores the 'inward war' the poet experienced as a result of her gender, religion, and mental fragility. Originally associated with the Movement, Jennings was sui generis, believing poetry was 'communication' and 'communion.' She wrote of nature, friendship, childhood, religion, love, (...)
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  33. Chaucer: A European Life. By Marion Turner. Pp. Xvi, 599, Princeton/Oxford, Princeton University Press, 2019. 2 Family Trees, 3 Maps and 19 Color Plates. $39.95/£30.00. Chaucer and Religious Controversies in the Medieval and Early Modern Period. By Nancy Bradley Warren. Pp. Xiii, 213. Notre Dame, Indiana, University of Notre Dame Press, 2019, $45.00. [REVIEW]John C. Hirsh - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (3):530-531.
  34. Jane Austen’s ‘Religious Principle’: Reflections on Re‐Reading Her Novel, Mansfield Park.Gordon Leah - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (3):459-470.
  35. Skeptical Theism Unscathed: Why Skeptical Objections to Skeptical Theism Fail.Perry Hendricks - 2020 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 101 (1):43-73.
    Arguments from evil purport to show that some fact about evil makes it (at least) probable that God does not exist. Skeptical theism is held to undermine many versions of the argument from evil: it is thought to undermine a crucial inference that such arguments often rely on. Skeptical objections to skeptical theism claim that it (skeptical theism) entails an excessive amount of skepticism, and therefore should be rejected. In this article, I show that skeptical objections to skeptical theism have (...)
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  36. On Knowing an Ineffable God Personally: A Study in the Joy of the Saints.David Worsley - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (1):21.
    What might it mean for a person’s joy to be ‘complete’? Granting that such conditions obtain at the beatific vision, I suggest beatific enjoyment requires a specific kind of knowledge of God; namely, fundamental personal knowledge. However, attaining such personal knowledge necessitates the divine gifting of a special grace, that is, a power to know God’s infinite essence. Furthermore, this power, and so, this knowledge, can come in an infinite number of degrees. Granting this, one saint could come to a (...)
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  37. Robert C. Neville: A Systematic, Nonconformist, Comparative Philosopher of Religion.Bin Song - 2020 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 40 (3):11-30.
    As his student, colleague, and friend, my learning process with Robert Neville has experienced two stages of perplexity, which I think represent to a large extent other scholars' similar experience of engaging Neville's thought. The two stages can be described as follows. First, given their familiarity with existing divisions of human knowledge of religion within modern research universities, scholars reading Neville's work may be confused by questions concerning its disciplinary nature, or what it is all about. Is it theology, philosophy, (...)
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  38. A Methodological Investigation on Christian Natural Theology.Chulho Youn - 2020 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 62 (1):41-57.
    Summary The purpose of this article is to present a desirable understanding of Christian natural theology in terms of methodology. In the Enlightenment era, natural theology was understood as that which provides support for religious beliefs by starting from a premise that does not include any religious beliefs. The natural theology of this age was performed under the premise that humanity could prove God’s existence by universal reason without the revelation of God, and that everyone could reasonably agree with the (...)
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  39. Theological Walls, Insularity, and the Prospects for Global Philosophy.Guy Axtell - manuscript
    Walls can be physical; they can also be psychological, social, political, economic, and ontological. Theological walls are ontological and typically also moral, though when we break down the “religion/non-religion” distinction and consider other dimensions of religious life beyond doctrinal ones, they are also psychological, social, and increasingly political. Among Enlightenment era philosophers eager to provide a genealogy of religious and political divisiveness was Rousseau, who held that “Those who distinguish civil from theological intolerance are, to my mind, mistaken. The two (...)
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  40. Hilary of Poitiers on the Inter-Trinitarian Relation of the Son and the Holy Spirit.Thomas Crean - 2019 - Augustinianum 59 (2):385-405.
    Given the authority accorded to Hilary of Poitiers by ecumenical councils of the 1st millennium, it is of interest to determine his teaching about the disputed question of the eternal relation of the Son and the Holy Spirit. The question is complex, partly because it is one that Hilary in most cases touches upon only indirectly, when arguing for the divinity of the Son, and partly because the meaning of the relevant passages, even on the level of Latin syntax, is (...)
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  41. Rufino Difensore Dell’Ortodossia Niceno-Costantinopolitana. La Versione Latina di H. E. 1, 1-3 a Confronto Con L’Originale. [REVIEW]Sabrina Antonella Robbe - 2019 - Augustinianum 59 (2):357-384.
    The paper focuses on Rufinus’ translation of Eusebius’ Historia Ecclesiastica 1, 1-3, which discusses trinitarian and christological matters. Firstly, I will analyze how Rufinus amends or removes statements which are close to Origenism and Arianism, sometimes replacing them with orthodox ones; I will then examine Rufinus’ way of citing and interpreting the Bible, by correcting Eusebius’ reading, when it is suspected of heresy, or by explaining passages himself. This work of emendation reveals, on the one hand, Rufinus’ desire to give (...)
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  42. Wile E. Coyote and the Craggy Rocks Below.Tyler Dalton McNabb - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (2):339-346.
    William Lane Craig has defended the following two contentions: If theism is true, we have a sound foundation for morality, and, If theism is false, we do not have a sound foundation for morality. Erik Wielenberg rejects. Specifically, Wielenberg argues that naturalists have resources to make sense of objective moral values, moral duties, and moral knowledge. In response to Wielenberg, I defend Craig’s second contention by arguing that Wielenberg’s theory fails to robustly capture our moral phenomenology as well as make (...)
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  43. Becoming a Christian: Combining Prior Belief, Evidence, and Will. [REVIEW]Lydia McGrew - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (2):599-603.
  44. Fluctuating maximal God.Anne Jeffrey, Asha Lancaster-Thomas & Matyáš Moravec - forthcoming - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-17.
    This paper explores a variety of perfect being theism that combines Yujin Nagasawa’s maximal God thesis with the view that God is not atemporal. We argue that the original maximal God thesis still implicitly relies on a “static” view of divine perfections. Instead, following the recent re-evaluation of divine immutability by analytic philosophers, we propose that thinking of divine great-making properties as fluctuating but nevertheless remaining maximal either for every time t or across all times strengthens the original maximal God (...)
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  45. Regard for Reason in the Moral Mind. By Joshua May. Pp. Ix, 264, Oxford University Press, 2018, £45.00. [REVIEW]Agneta Sutton - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (2):359-359.
    he burgeoning science of ethics has produced a trend toward pessimism. Ordinary moral thought and action, we're told, are profoundly influenced by arbitrary factors and ultimately driven by unreasoned feelings. This book counters the current orthodoxy on its own terms by carefully engaging with the empirical literature. The resulting view, optimistic rationalism, shows the pervasive role played by reason our moral minds, and ultimately defuses sweeping debunking arguments in ethics. The science does suggest that moral knowledge and virtue don't come (...)
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  46. Challenges, Opportunities, and Suggestions for a Renewed Program in the Scientific Study of Religion.Lluís Oviedo - 2020 - Zygon 55 (1):93-96.
    This is an introduction to the Symposium on “The New Scientific Study of Religion Moving On.” The introduction briefly indicates why the cognitive science of religion (CSR) needs re‐evaluation. It subsequently gives an overview of the contributions of the symposium's articles.
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  47. The Prospects for Debunking Non-Theistic Belief.Thaddeus Robinson - forthcoming - Sophia:1-7.
    According to The Debunking Argument, evidence from the cognitive science of religion suggests that it is epistemically inappropriate to persist in believing in the theistic God. In this paper, I focus on a reply to this argument according to which the evidence from cognitive science says nothing about the epistemic propriety of belief in the theistic God, since God may have chosen to create human beliefs in God by means of precisely the systems identified by cognitive scientists. I argue that (...)
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  48. Зеркало Клио: Метафизическое Постижение Истории.Алексей Владиславович Халапсис - 2017 - Днипро, Днепропетровская область, Украина, 49000:
    В монографии представлены несколько смысловых блоков, связанных с восприятием и интерпретацией человеком исторического бытия. Ранние греческие мыслители пытались получить доступ к исходникам (началам) бытия, и эти интенции легли в основу научного знания, а также привели к появлению метафизики. В классической (и в неклассической) метафизике за основу была принята догма Пифагора и Платона о неизменности подлинной реальности, из чего следовало отрицание бытийного характера времени. Автор монографии отказывается от этой догмы и предлагает стратегию обновления метафизики и перехода ее к новому — постнеклассическому (...)
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  49. Iovem Imperium, or Sacred Aspects of Roman “Globalization”.Alex V. Halapsis - 2014 - Scientific Cognition: Methodology and Technology 33 (2):173-178.
    The article deals with the question of the “globalization” project of the Roman civilization. Author asserts that the Romans had a specific “globalization” project. The construct “Iovem imperium” can explain the phenomenon of the Roman self-government and “sacred claim” of Roman community to domination in other lands. Pax Romana was conceived as an expression of Roman power (imperium), the boundaries of the Roman Republic were perceived as the border of the civilized world. Augustus was a brilliant manager, who could implement (...)
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  50. On the Nature of the Gods, or “Epistemological Polytheism” as History Comprehension Method.Alex V. Halapsis - 2015 - The European Philosophical and Historical Discourse 1 (1):53-59.
    The article is devoted to the issue of history comprehension of the ancient societies in the context of their religious identity. Religion is one of the fundamental elements of civilization idea (“ontological project”); it constructs “universe” that is distinguished by the “laws of nature”, specific only for it. To make “communication” with ancient people maximally authentic, the researcher should not only recognize their right to look at the “world” in its own way, but also accept its “laws”, that means – (...)
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