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Liar Paradox

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Summary A liar paradox is generated by a sentence or proposition (or any truth bearer more generally) that says that it is false.  If we use the name 'S' for the sentence ‘S is false’, then that very sentence says of itself that it is false. We can reason intuitively that if it is true, then what it says is true, namely that it is false. So it is true that it is false, or, more directly, it is false. On the other hand, if it is false, then what it says is false, namely that it is false. So it is false that it is false, or, more directly, it is true. Thus, we derive that it is false from the assumption that it is true, and we derive that it is true from the assumption that it is false. It takes just a couple of steps from here to the claim that S is both true and false.  The above reasoning relies on the following two principles regarding truth (for some class of sentences p of which S is a member): (i) if p is true, then p, and (ii) if p, then p is true.  It also relies on principles of classical (and intuitionistic) logic.  Approaches to the liar paradox usually reject one of the principles of truth, one of the logical principles, or find some defect in S and any other sentence like it.  The liar paradox is closely related to several other paradoxes associated with truth, including Curry's paradox and Yablo's paradox.
Key works The classic work on the liar paradox in analytic philosophy is Tarski 1936. Kripke 1975 solidified the importance of logical rigor in investigations of the liar paradox. Early contextual approaches include Parsons 1974 and Burge 1979Priest 1979 and Chihara 1979 initiated the inconsistency approach. Gupta 1982 and Herzberger 1982 were the first to offer revision theories of truth. 
Introductions Introductory works include the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry: Beall & Glanzberg 2010
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  1. added 2020-08-24
    De las pericias con que el gobernador Sancho Panza resolvió la Paradoja del Suicida.Luis Felipe Bartolo Alegre - manuscript
    This is the story of how the noble squire Sancho Panza, while governing what he thought to be an insula, ingeniously solved a paradox not unlike those of modern logic.
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  2. added 2020-08-19
    Liar Sentences Are Truth-Apt.Matheus Silva - manuscript
    Lycan (2010: 617) maintained that if we know about a deductive argument P1, P2…, ∴C that it is valid, this shows that a set containing the premises and the negation of conclusion is internally inconsistent {P1, P2,…, ~C}. Using a similar reasoning, we should conclude that an invalid deductive argument shows that a set containing the premises and the negation of conclusion is internally consistent. This implies that premises and conclusion of any deductive argument are truth-apt. Since it is uncontroversial (...)
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  3. added 2020-08-19
    A Quantificational Analysis of the Liar Paradox.Matheus Silva - manuscript
    It seems that the most common strategy to solve the liar paradox is to argue that liar sentences are meaningless and, consequently, truth-valueless. The other main option that has grown in recent years is the dialetheist view that treats liar sentences as meaningful, truth-apt and true. In this paper I will offer a new approach that does not belong in either camp. I hope to show that liar sentences can be interpreted as meaningful, truth-apt and false, but without engendering any (...)
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  4. added 2020-08-14
    Recensione di 'The Outer Limits of Reason' (I limiti esterni della ragione) di Noson Yanofsky 403p (2013)(revisto 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Benvenuti all'inferno sulla Terra: Bambini, Cambiamenti climatici, Bitcoin, Cartelli, Cina, Democrazia, Diversità, Disgenetica, Uguaglianza, Pirati Informatici, Diritti umani, Islam, Liberalismo, Prosperità, Web, Caos, Fame, Malattia, Violenza, Intellige. Las Vegas, NV, USA: Reality Press. pp. 182-196.
    Io do una recensione dettagliata di 'The Outer Limits of Reason' di Noson Yanofsky da una prospettiva unificata di Wittgenstein e psicologia evolutiva. Inditesto che la difficoltà con questioni come il paradosso nel linguaggio e nella matematica, l'incompletezza, l'indecidibilità, la computabilità, il cervello e l'universo come computer ecc., derivano tutto dall'incapacità di guardare attentamente al nostro uso del linguaggio nel contesto appropriato e quindi alla mancata separazione delle questioni di fatto scientifico dalle questioni di come funziona il linguaggio. Discuto le (...)
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  5. added 2020-08-14
    Wolpert, Chaitin e Wittgenstein sull'impossibilità, l'incompletezza, il paradosso bugiardo, il teismo, i limiti del calcolo, un principio di incertezza meccanica non quantistica e l'universo come computer, il teorema finale della Teoria della Macchina di Turing (rivisto 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Benvenuti all'inferno sulla Terra: Bambini, Cambiamenti climatici, Bitcoin, Cartelli, Cina, Democrazia, Diversità, Disgenetica, Uguaglianza, Pirati Informatici, Diritti umani, Islam, Liberalismo, Prosperità, Web, Caos, Fame, Malattia, Violenza, Intellige. Las Vegas, NV, USA: Reality Press. pp. 177-181.
    Ho letto molte recenti discussioni sui limiti del calcolo e dell'universo come computer, sperando di trovare alcuni commenti sull'incredibile lavoro del fisico polimatematico e del teorista delle decisioni David Wolpert, ma non ho trovato una sola citazione e quindi presento questo brevissimo riassunto. Wolpert si dimostrò una straordinaria impossibilità o incompletezza teoremi (1992-2008-see arxiv dot org) sui limiti dell'inferenza (calcolo) che sono così generali che sono indipendenti dal dispositivo che fa il calcolo, e anche indipendenti dalle leggi della fisica, in (...)
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  6. added 2020-08-12
    A Revision of the Definition of Lying as an Untruth Told with Intent to Deceive.Warren Shibles - 1988 - Argumentation 2 (1):99-115.
    The traditional and prevailing definition of lying is that lying is some variation or combination of: “an untruth told with intent to deceive.” I establish that this is the case, and that, as a result, contradictions and injustices arise. An alternative definition is proposed which is shown to avoid these difficulties. It is also shown that and how on the new definition the alleged “Liar paradox” is easily dissolved.
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  7. added 2020-08-10
    Paradox with Just Self-Reference.T. Parent - manuscript
    If a semantically open language has no constraints on self-reference, one can prove an absurdity. The argument utilizes co-referring names 'a0' and 'a1', and the definition of a two-place predicate 'The diagonal of x = y'. The definition enables a type of self-reference without deploying any semantic terminology--yet given that a0= a1, the definition implies the that 'a0' = 'a1', which is absurd. Objections are then addressed, and comparisons with the Liar are made. The moral is that a semantically open (...)
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  8. added 2020-08-08
    Truth, Paradox, and Ineffable Propositions.James R. Shaw - 2013 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86 (1):64-104.
    I argue that on very weak assumptions about truth (in particular, that there are coherent norms governing the use of "true"), there is a proposition absolutely inexpressible with conventional language, or something very close. I argue for this claim "constructively": I use a variant of the Berry Paradox to reveal a particular thought for my readership to entertain that very strongly resists conventional expression. I gauge the severity of this expressive limitation within a taxonomy of expressive failures, and argue that (...)
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  9. added 2020-07-29
    How to Conquer the Liar - an Informal Exposition.Boris Culina - manuscript
    This article informally presents a solution to the paradoxes of truth and shows how the solution solves classical paradoxes (such as the original Liar) as well as paradoxes that were invented as counter-arguments for various proposed solutions to the paradoxes of truth (``revenges of the Liar''). Also, one erroneous critique of Kripke-Feferman axiomatic theory of truth, which is present in contemporary literature, is pointed out.
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  10. added 2020-07-23
    The Signalman Against the Glut and Gap Theorists.Casper Storm Hansen - forthcoming - Synthese:1-15.
    Radical glut and gap theorists deny—in opposite ways—that the liar sentence has exactly one of the two values true and not true. I describe a scenario where a signalman finds himself in a situation analogous to the liar paradox: if he lights a fire at a certain time, that is analogous to the liar being true, and if he does not, that is analogous to the liar not being true. It is obvious that he must make exactly one of those (...)
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  11. added 2020-07-22
    Limits of Abductivism About Logic.Ulf Hlobil - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    I argue against abductivism about logic, which is the view that rational theory choice in logic happens by abduction. Abduction cannot serve as a neutral arbiter in many foundational disputes in logic because, in order to use abduction, one must first identify the relevant data. Which data one deems relevant depends on what I call one's conception of logic. One's conception of logic is, however, not independent of one's views regarding many of the foundational disputes that one may hope to (...)
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  12. added 2020-07-22
    Modeling the concept of truth using the largest intrinsic fixed point of the strong Kleene three valued semantics (in Croatian language).Boris Culina - 2004 - Dissertation, University of Zagreb
    The thesis deals with the concept of truth and the paradoxes of truth. Philosophical theories usually consider the concept of truth from a wider perspective. They are concerned with questions such as - Is there any connection between the truth and the world? And, if there is - What is the nature of the connection? Contrary to these theories, this analysis is of a logical nature. It deals with the internal semantic structure of language, the mutual semantic connection of sentences, (...)
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  13. added 2020-07-20
    The Synthetic Concept of Truth and its Descendants.Boris Culina - manuscript
    The concept of truth has many aims but only one source. The article describes the primary concept of truth, here called the synthetic concept of truth, according to which truth is the objective result of the synthesis of us and nature in the process of rational cognition. It is shown how various aspects of the concept of truth -- logical, scientific, and mathematical aspect -- arise from the synthetic concept of truth. Also, it is shown how the paradoxes of truth (...)
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  14. added 2020-07-20
    Fix, Express, Quantify. Disquotation After its Logic.Carlo Nicolai - forthcoming - Mind.
  15. added 2020-07-18
    An Observation About Truth.David Kashtan - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Jerusalem
  16. added 2020-07-17
    Paradox in Perspective: A Liar's Guide to Humor.Stephen R. Palmquist - manuscript
    This is the original English version of a paper that has been published only in Chinese translation. (For the published, Chinese version, see "透視悖論說謊者的幽默指南", in page 37-44 on 拒絕再Hea──真理與意義的追尋) The paper was originally written as a lecture given at the University of Macau in April 2010. The paper argues that humor is essentially a form of paradoxical deception.
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  17. added 2020-07-17
    透視悖論--說謊者的幽默指南.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2013 - In 拒絕再 Hea ── 真理與意義的追尋. Hong Kong: 次文化 [Subculture Limited]. pp. 37-44.
    A Chinese translation of an essay entitled "Paradox in Perspective: A Liar’s Guide to Humor".
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  18. added 2020-07-10
    Truth-Making and the Alethic Undecidability of the Liar.Stephen Barker - 2012 - Discusiones Filosóficas 13 (21):13-31.
    I argue that a new solution to the semantic paradoxes is possible based on truth-making. I show that with an appropriate understanding of what the ultimate truth and falsity makers of sentences are, it can be demonstrated that sentences like the liar are alethically undecidable. That means it cannot be said in principle whether such sentences are true, not true, false, not-false, neither true nor false, both true and false, and so on. I argue that this leads to a solution (...)
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  19. added 2020-07-08
    Review of "Truth". [REVIEW]Benjamin W. Jarvis - 2013 - Essays in Philosophy 14 (2):13.
  20. added 2020-07-06
    Minimalismo e suas mentiras generalizadas.Danilo Fraga Dantas - 2017 - Analytica (Rio) 21 (2):183-194.
    A teoria minimalista da verdade consiste em todas as instâncias do esquema ‘‘φ’ é verdadeira sse φ’ e na afirmação de que nossa aceitação (primitiva) dessas instâncias é suficiente para explicar nossas atitudes em relação a todas sentenças envolvendo ‘verdade’. Filósofos têm apontado que o minimalismo tem dificuldades em explicar nossas atitudes em relação a generalizações envolvendo ‘verdade’ bem como em lidar com instanciações contraditórias do esquema para sentenças paradoxais (ex. paradoxo do mentiroso). Proponentes do minimalismo apresentam soluções para esses (...)
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  21. added 2020-07-06
    Truth.Bradley Dowden - 2004 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Philosophers are interested in a constellation of issues involving the concept of truth. A preliminary issue, although somewhat subsidiary, is to decide what sorts of things can be true. Is truth a property of sentences (which are linguistic entities in some language or other), or is truth a property of propositions (nonlinguistic, abstract and timeless entities)? The principal issue is: What is truth? It is the problem of being clear about what you are saying when you say some claim or (...)
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  22. added 2020-06-16
    Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. Language, Proof and Logic. In Collaboration with Gerard Allwein, Dave Barker-Plummer, and Albert Liu. CSLI Publications, Stanford, and Seven Bridges Press, New York and London, 1999, Xii + 587 Pp. - Gerard Allwein, Dave Barker-Plummer, Jon Barwise, John Etchemendy, and Albert Liu. LPL Software Manual. CSLI Publications, Stanford, and Seven Bridges Press, New York and London, 1999, Vii + 52 Pp. + CD-ROM. [REVIEW]Patrick Grim - 2001 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 7 (3):377-379.
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  23. added 2020-06-16
    Anil Gupta and Nuel Belnap. The Revision Theory of Truth. Bradford Books. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1993, Xii + 299 Pp. [REVIEW]Michael Sheard - 1995 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 60 (4):1314-1316.
  24. added 2020-06-16
    Haim Gaifman. Pointers to Truth. The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 89 , Pp. 223–261.André Chapuis - 1993 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (4):1462-1463.
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  25. added 2020-06-16
    Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. The Liar. An Essay on Truth and Circularity. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford1987, Xii + 185 Pp. [REVIEW]Donald A. Martin - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (1):252-254.
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  26. added 2020-06-16
    E. M. Barth and R. T. P. Wiche. Problems, Functions and Semantic Roles. A Pragmatists’ Analysis of Montague's Theory of Sentence Meaning. Foundations of Communication. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and New York1986, XVIII + 198 Pp. [REVIEW]Barbara Abbott - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (1):317-318.
  27. added 2020-06-16
    Robert L. Martin and Peter W. Woodruff. On Representing ‘True-in-L' in L. Philosophia , Vol. 5 No. 3 , Pp. 213–217. - Saul Kripke. Outline of a Theory of Truth. The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 72 , Pp. 690–716. - Anil Gupta. Truth and Paradox. Journal of Philosophical Logic, Vol. 11 , Pp. 1–60. - Hans G. Herzberger. Notes on Naive Semantics. Journal of Philosophical Logic, Vol. 11 , Pp. 61–102. [REVIEW]Geoffrey Hellman - 1985 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 50 (4):1068-1071.
  28. added 2020-06-16
    Robert L. Martin. Toward a Solution to the Liar Paradox. The Philosophical Review, Vol. 76, Pp. 279–311. - Robert L. Martin. On Grelling's Paradox. The Philosophical Review, Vol. 77 , Pp. 321–331. - Bas C. Van Fraassen. Presupposition, Implication, and Self-Reference. The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 65 , Pp. 136–152. - Brian Skyrms. Return of the Liar: Three-Valued Logic and the Concept of Truth. American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 7 , Pp. 153–161. - Robert L. Martin. Preface. The Paradox of the Liar, Edited by Robert L. Martin, Yale University Press, New Haven and London 1970, P. Vii. [REVIEW]James Cargile - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (4):584-587.
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  29. added 2020-06-16
    John King-Farlow. Sea-Fights Without Tears. Analysis , Vol. 19 No. 2 , Pp. 36–42. - John King-FarlowMr. Bradley and the Libertarians. The Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 37 , Pp. 234–238. [REVIEW]Ronald J. Butler - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (1):175-177.
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  30. added 2020-06-16
    Essay Review: Why is the Sky Dark at Night?: The Paradox of Olbers' Paradox: A Case History of Scientific ThoughtThe Paradox of Olbers' Paradox: A Case History of Scientific Thought. JakiStanley L. . Pp. 269. $9.50.G. J. Whitrow - 1971 - History of Science 10 (1):128-132.
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    J. F. Staal. Some Semantic Relations Between Sentoids. Foundations of Language, Vol. 3 , Pp. 66–88.Gilbert H. Harman - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (1):132-133.
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  32. added 2020-06-16
    Paul R. Halmos. Naive Set Theory.D. Van Nostrand Company, Princeton1960, Vii + 104 Pp. [REVIEW]Alfons Borgers - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (2):308.
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  33. added 2020-06-16
    Y. Bar-Hillel. New Light on the Liar. Analysis , Vol. 18 No. 1 , Pp. 1–6. - Yehoshua Bar-Hillel. Do Natural Languages Contain Paradoxes?Studium Generale, Vol. 19 , Pp. 391–397. [REVIEW]James Cargile - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (4):645.
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  34. added 2020-06-16
    Hans G. Herzberger. The Truth-Conditional Consistency of Natural Languages. The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 64 , Pp. 29–35. [REVIEW]Alonzo Church - 1968 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (1):146-147.
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  35. added 2020-06-16
    Jose EncarnacionJr., On Ushenko's Version of the Liar-Paradox. Mind, N.S. Vol. 64 , Pp. 99–100. - A. P. Ushenko. A Note on the Liar-Paradox. Mind, N.S. Vol. 64 , P. 543. - Eric Toms. The Liar Paradox. The Philosophical Review, Vol. 65 , Pp. 542–547. - Keith S. Donnellan. A Note on the Liar Paradox. The Philosophical Review, Vol. 66 , Pp. 394–397. - A. P. Ushenko. An Addendum to the Note on the Liar-Paradox. Mind, N.S. Vol. 66 , P. 98. - Eric Toms. Reply to a Note on the Liar Paradox. The Philosophical Review, Vol. 67 , Pp. 101–105. - William W. Rozeboom. Is Epimenides Still Lying?Analysis , Vol. 18 No. 5 , Pp. 105–113. - W. J. Huggett. Paradox Lost. Analysis , Vol. 19 No. 1 , Pp. 21–23. - C. H. Whiteley. Let Epimenides Lie! Analysis , Vol. 19 No. 1 , Pp. 23–24. - Sibanban. Mr. Eric Toms on the Liar Paradox. Mind, N.S. Vol. 74 , Pp. 421–423. [REVIEW]Jonathan Bennett - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (1):108-112.
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  36. added 2020-06-16
    Hao Wang. Undecidable Sentences Generated by Semantic Paradoxes. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 20 , Pp. 31–34. Reprinted Hao Wang. As Undecidable Sentences Suggested by Semantic Paradoxes, Pp. 546–558.Steven Orey - 1965 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 30 (1):100.
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  37. added 2020-06-16
    J.F. Thomson. On Some Paradoxes. Analytical Philosophy, Edited by R. J. Butler, Barnes & Noble, Inc., New York1962, Pp. 104–119. [REVIEW]Alan Ross Anderson - 1964 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 29 (3):139-140.
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  38. added 2020-06-14
    Cut Elimination for Systems of Transparent Truth with Restricted Initial Sequents.Carlo Nicolai - manuscript
    The paper studies a cluster of systems for fully disquotational truth based on the restriction of initial sequents. Unlike well-known alternative approaches, such systems display both a simple and intuitive model theory and remarkable proof-theoretic properties. We start by showing that, due to a strong form of invertibility of the truth rules, cut is eliminable in the systems via a standard strategy supplemented by a suitable measure of the number of applications of truth rules to formulas in derivations. Next, we (...)
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  39. added 2020-06-14
    Classical Logic and the Liar.Yannis Stephanou - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    The liar and kindred paradoxes show that we can derive contradictions when we reason in accordance with classical logic from the schema (T) about truth: S is true iff p, where ‘p’ is to be replaced with a sentence and ‘S’ with a name of that sentence. The paper presents two arguments to the effect that the blame lies not with (T) but with classical logic. The arguments derive contradictions using classical logic, but instead of appealing to (T), they invoke (...)
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  40. added 2020-06-13
    Wolpert, Chaitin и Wittgenstein о невозможности, неполноте, парадоксе лжецов, теизм, границах вычислений, принципе неквантовой механической неопределенности и вселенной как компьютер – конечной теорете в Тuring машин Тьюринга (пересмотренный 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In ДОБРО ПОЖАЛОВАТЬ В АД НА НАШЕМ МИРЕ : Дети, Изменение климата, Биткойн, Картели, Китай, Демократия, Разнообразие, Диссигеника, Равенство, Хакеры, Права человека, Ислам, Либерализм, Процветание, Сеть, Хаос, Голод, Болезнь, Насилие, Искусственный интелле. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 187-192.
    Я читал много недавних дискуссий о границах вычислений и Вселенной, как компьютер, надеясь найти некоторые комментарии по удивительной работы физика полимата и теоретик решений Дэвид Вольперт, но не нашли ни одной цитаты, и поэтому я представляю это очень краткое резюме. Вольперт доказал некоторые потрясающие невозможности или теоремы неполноты (1992 до 2008-см arxiv dot org) на пределы выводов (вычисления), которые настолько общие они не зависят от устройства делать вычисления, и даже независимо от законов физики, поэтому они применяются через компьютеры, физика, и (...)
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  41. added 2020-05-31
    Exceptional Logic.Bruno Whittle - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-37.
    The aim of the paper is to argue that all—or almost all—logical rules have exceptions. In particular, it is argued that this is a moral that we should draw from the semantic paradoxes. The idea that we should respond to the paradoxes by revising logic in some way is familiar. But previous proposals advocate the replacement of classical logic with some alternative logic. That is, some alternative system of rules, where it is taken for granted that these hold without exception. (...)
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  42. added 2020-05-27
    The Completeness: From Henkin's Proposition to Quantum Computer.Vasil Penchev - 2018 - Логико-Философские Штудии 16 (1-2):134-135.
    The paper addresses Leon Hen.kin's proposition as a " lighthouse", which can elucidate a vast territory of knowledge uniformly: logic, set theory, information theory, and quantum mechanics: Two strategies to infinity are equally relevant for it is as universal and t hus complete as open and thus incomplete. Henkin's, Godel's, Robert Jeroslow's, and Hartley Rogers' proposition are reformulated so that both completeness and incompleteness to be unified and thus reduced as a joint property of infinity and of all infinite sets. (...)
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  43. added 2020-05-11
    Formal Theories of Truth.Jc Beall, Michael Glanzberg & David Ripley - 2018 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Three leading philosopher-logicians present a clear and concise overview of formal theories of truth, explaining key logical techniques. Truth is as central topic in philosophy: formal theories study the connections between truth and logic, including the intriguing challenges presented by paradoxes like the Liar.
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  44. added 2020-05-11
    Spandrels of Truth.Jc Beall - 2010 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 16 (2):284-286.
  45. added 2020-02-12
    The Revision Theory of Truth.Vann McGee - 1996 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 56 (3):727-730.
  46. added 2020-02-12
    A Note on the Semantic Conception of Truth.Frederic B. Fitch - 1945 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 10 (1):22-22.
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  47. added 2020-02-11
    Truth and Paradox: Solving the Riddles.J. Beall - 2007 - Philosophical Review 116 (3):478-481.
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  48. added 2020-02-11
    Paradox and Paraconsistency: Conflict Resolution in the Abstract Sciences.Joachim Bromand - 2004 - Mind 113 (450):416-420.
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  49. added 2020-02-11
    The Liar: An Essay on Truth and Circularity. Jon Barwise, John Etchemendy.Anil Gupta - 1989 - Philosophy of Science 56 (4):697-709.
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  50. added 2020-01-20
    Notes on Leitgeb’s What Truth Depends on.Edoardo Rivello - forthcoming - Studia Logica:1-28.
    In Hannes Leitgeb’s article What truth depends on the author provides a formally correct and materially adequate truth definition for the set of all grounded sentences, defined as the least fixed point of a monotone operator of semantic dependence. In this paper we will focus on the mathematical aspects of Leitgeb’s notions of dependence, grounding and truth, recasting Leitgeb’s construction in a functional setting in which we establish some new facts about these notions.
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