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Sociology of Science

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Summary Sociology of Science aims at an understanding of the social aspects of science. It comprises research about the social structure of the institutions of science and their relationship to other institutions as well as the influence on and construction of scientific knowledge.
Key works Barnes et al 1996 states the prominent 'Strong programme', Collins 1985 presents the sociology of science of the so-called 'Bath school', Fleck 1979 is an early classic in sociology of science, In Latour & Woolgar 1986 a constructivist approach in the sociology of science is defended, Merton 1973 is a collection of key essays by probably the most prominent sociologist of science, De Solla Price is one of the founding fathers of scientometrics , In Shapin & Schaffer 1985, you find an influential case study
Introductions Barnes et al 1996 can be read as an introduction to the field, Helen Longino's article in the Stanford Encyclopedia provides introductory insight in the social dimensions of scientific knowledge
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  1. added 2020-08-19
    Trust and Distributed Epistemic Labor‎.Boaz Miller & Ori Freiman - 2020 - In Judith Simon (ed.), The Routledge Handbook on Trust and Philosophy. New York: Routledge. pp. ‎341-353‎.
    This chapter explores properties that bind individuals, knowledge, and communities, together. Section ‎‎1 introduces Hardwig’s argument from trust in others’ testimonies as entailing that trust is the glue ‎that binds individuals into communities. Section 2 asks “what grounds trust?” by exploring assessment ‎of collaborators’ explanatory responsiveness, formal indicators such as affiliation and credibility, ‎appreciation of peers’ tacit knowledge, game-theoretical considerations, and the role moral character ‎of peers, social biases, and social values play in grounding trust. Section 3 deals with establishing (...)
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  2. added 2020-08-16
    Does Language Determine Our Scientific Ideas?H. G. Callaway - 1992 - Dialectica 46 (3-4):225-242.
    SummaryThis paper argues that the influence of language on science, philosophy and other field is mediated by communicative practices. Where communications is more restrictive, established linguistic structures exercise a tighter control over innovations and scientifically motivated reforms of language. The viewpoint here centers on the thesis that argumentation is crucial in the understanding and evaluation of proposed reforms and that social practices which limit argumentation serve to erode scientific objectivity. Thus, a plea is made for a sociology of scientific belief (...)
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  3. added 2020-08-13
    Back to the Big Picture.Anna Alexandrova, Robert Northcott & Jack Wright - forthcoming - Journal of Economic Methodology.
    We distinguish between two different strategies in economic methodology. The big picture strategy, dominant in the twentieth century, ascribed to economics a unified method and evaluated this method against a single criterion of ‘science’. In the last thirty years a second strategy gained prominence: fine-grained studies of how some specific technique common in economics can achieve one or more epistemic goal. We argue that recent developments in philosophy of science and in economics warrant a return to big-picture – but now (...)
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  4. added 2020-07-21
    Using Crowdsourced Mathematics to Understand Mathematical Practice.Alison Pease, Ursula Martin, Fenner Stanley Tanswell & Andrew Aberdein - forthcoming - ZDM.
    Records of online collaborative mathematical activity provide us with a novel, rich, searchable, accessible and sizeable source of data for empirical investigations into mathematical practice. In this paper we discuss how the resources of crowdsourced mathematics can be used to help formulate and answer questions about mathematical practice, and what their limitations might be. We describe quantitative approaches to studying crowdsourced mathematics, reviewing work from cognitive history (comparing individual and collaborative proofs); social psychology (on the prospects for a measure of (...)
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  5. added 2020-07-06
    Race, Empire, and Epistemic Exclusion: Or the Structures of Sociological Thought.Julian Go - 2020 - Sociological Theory 38 (2):79-100.
    This essay analyzes racialized exclusions in sociology through a focus on sociology’s deep epistemic structures. These structures dictate what counts as social scientific knowledge and who can produce it. A historical analysis of their emergence and persistence reveals their connections to empire. Due to sociology’s initial emergence within the culture of American imperialism, early sociological thought embedded the culture of empire’s exclusionary logics. Sociology’s epistemic structures were inextricably racialized, contributing to exclusionary modes of thought and practice along the lines of (...)
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  6. added 2020-06-23
    In Defence of Armchair Expertise.Theodore Bach - 2019 - Theoria 85 (5):350-382.
    In domains like stock brokerage, clinical psychiatry, and long‐term political forecasting, experts generally fail to outperform novices. Empirical researchers agree on why this is: experts must receive direct or environmental learning feedback during training to develop reliable expertise, and these domains are deficient in this type of feedback. A growing number of philosophers resource this consensus view to argue that, given the absence of direct or environmental philosophical feedback, we should not give the philosophical intuitions or theories of expert philosophers (...)
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  7. added 2020-06-16
    History, Culture, and Truth: Essays Presented to D.P. Chattopadhyaya.Daya Krishna, K. Satchidananda Murty & D. P. Chattopadhyaya (eds.) - 1999 - Kalki Prakash.
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Professor Chattopadhyaya As I Know Him -- Kireet Joshi -- 2. On DP. Chattopadhyaya's Picture of Interdisciplinary -- Rajendra Prasad -- 3. The Humanization of Transcendental Philosophy: Notes -- Towards an Understanding of DP. Chattopadhyaya -- R Sundara Rajan -- 4. Freedom-East and West: A Tribute to -- DP. Chattopadhyaya -- Fred Dallmayr -- 5. Traditional Culture and Secularism -- R Balasubramanian -- 6. Induction and Doubt -- PK Sen -- 7. The Culture of Science (...)
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  8. added 2020-06-16
    Spirochaetes, Serology, and Salvarsan: Ludwik Fleck and the Construction of Medical Knowledge About Syphilis.den Belvant, H. - unknown
    The theoretical and empirical scope of this study thus clarified, an outline of the chapters which follow can now be presented. In Chapter II 1 shall systematically compare Fleck's theories with the approaches adopted by contemporary constructivists. My strategy is partly to use modern forms of constructivism as a foil for extracting relevant and valuable insights from the richness of Fleck's elaborations, partly to identify theoretical and conceptual issues that can possibly be clarified through an empirical 'replication' of Fleck's work. (...)
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  9. added 2020-06-16
    Science Development: An Evaluation Study. David E. Drew. [REVIEW]Stephen G. Brush - 1977 - Isis 68 (4):667-668.
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  10. added 2020-06-16
    Essay Review: The End of Science and the Ends of History of Science: Scientific Knowledge and its Social ProblemsScientific Knowledge and its Social Problems. RavetzJ. R. . Pp. 462. £5.00.Anthony Jackson - 1973 - History of Science 11 (4):292-305.
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  11. added 2020-06-16
    Book Review: Science and Society: Science and Society 1600–1900Science and Society 1600–1900. Edited by MathiasPeter . Pp. Viii + 166. £2.80. [REVIEW]Margaret Gowing - 1973 - History of Science 11 (2):143-145.
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  12. added 2020-06-16
    Sociology in Germany Since I945.F. J. Stendenbach - 1964 - Social Science Information 3 (3):7-51.
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  13. added 2020-06-16
    Sociology in Argentina.Edmundo Sustaita - 1963 - Social Science Information 2 (3):60-69.
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  14. added 2020-06-16
    Sociology in the U.S.S.R.V. V. Mshvenieradze & G. V. Osipov - 1962 - Social Science Information 1 (3):49-73.
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  15. added 2020-06-16
    Some Anthropological Contributions To the Sociology of Knowledge.Jacques J. Maquet - 1962 - Social Science Information 1 (3):5-20.
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  16. added 2020-06-03
    Getting Real with Rouse and Heidegger.Jeff Kochan - 2011 - Perspectives on Science 19 (1):81-115.
    Joseph Rouse has drawn from Heidegger’s early philosophy to develop what he calls a “practical hermeneutics of science.” With this, he has not only become an important player in the recent trend towards practice-based conceptualisations of science, he has also emerged as the predominant expositor of Heidegger’s philosophy of science. Yet, there are serious shortcomings in both Rouse’s theory of science and his interpretation of Heidegger. In the first instance, Rouse’s practical hermeneutics appears confused on the topic of realism. In (...)
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  17. added 2020-05-30
    A Science of Concord: The Politics of Commercial Knowledge in Mid-Eighteenth-Century Britain.Jon Cooper - forthcoming - Intellectual History Review.
    This article recovers mid-century proposals for sciences of concord and contextualizes them as part of a broader politics of commercial knowledge in eighteenth-century Britain. It begins by showing how merchants gained authority as formulators of commercial policy during the Commerce Treaty debates of 1713–1714. This authority held fast during the Walpolean oligarchy, but collapsed by the 1740s, when lobbying and patronage were increasingly maligned as corrupt by a ferment of popular republicanism. The article then explores how the Anglican cleric Josiah (...)
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  18. added 2020-05-29
    Naar een emancipatie van de complottheorie.Massimiliano Simons - 2017 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 3 (79):473-497.
    This article argues that pseudoscience lacks an adequate philosophical analysis. Using conspiracy theories as a case study, it is claimed that such an analysis needs to go beyond a mere epistemological approach. In the first part, it is shown that the existing philosophical literature shares the assumption that conspiracy theories are primarily deficient scientific hypotheses. This claim is contested, because such an approach can only understand what conspiracy theories fail to be, but not what they are and why people tend (...)
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  19. added 2020-05-28
    Model Anarchism.Walter Veit - manuscript
    This paper constitutes a radical departure from the existing philosophical literature on models, modeling-practices, and model-based science. I argue that the various entities and practices called 'models' and 'modeling-practices' are too diverse, too context-sensitive, and serve too many scientific purposes and roles, as to allow for a general philosophical analysis. From this recognition an alternative view emerges that I shall dub model anarchism.
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  20. added 2020-05-25
    How is a Revolutionary Scientific Paper Cited?: The Case of Hess’ “History of Ocean Basins”.K. Brad Wray - 2020 - Scientometrics 124:1677–1683.
    I examine the citation patterns to a revolutionary scientific paper, Hess’ “History of Ocean Basins”, which played a significant role in the plate tectonics revolution in the geosciences. I test two predictions made by the geoscientist Menard (in Science: growth and change. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1971): (1) that the peak year of citations for Hess’ article will be 1968; and (2) that the rate of citations to the article will then reach some lower level, continuing on accumulating citations at (...)
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  21. added 2020-05-25
    Bruno Latour and the Secularization of Science.Massimiliano Simons - 2019 - Perspectives on Science 27 (6):925-954.
    Many young dreamers who want to be modern up to the tips of their toes, and who think they have gotten rid of these barely imaginable old-fashioned ideas, are, without realizing it, mystics in search of a spiritual experience. Several sociologists of science have mobilized secularization metaphors to describe developments in the study of science. Similar to how secularization refers to a decreasing status of religion and God as a transcendent factor in society, the secularization of science refers to an (...)
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  22. added 2020-05-25
    A Note on Measuring Normal Science.K. Brad Wray - 2018 - Scientometrics 117:647-650.
    Petrovich provides an insightful study on analytic philosophy (AP) with the intention of determining whether this sub-field of philosophy has been operating within what Kuhn calls a normal science framework. Through a citation analysis, Petrovich concludes that AP does not exhibit the sort of pattern that we would expect of a field operating in a normal science phase. I take issue with Petrovich’s way of measuring normal science. I provide some insight into how we might better measure normal science in (...)
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  23. added 2020-05-24
    Science Communication.Annette Leßmöllmann, Marcelo Dascal & Thomas Gloning (eds.) - 2020
    For this handbook, we decided to combine a first strategy that looks at different research approaches and asks for their specific contribution to the study of science communication. This is the aim of section I. A second and third strategy is to describe main topics and central aspects of internal and external science communication. This is the aim of sections II and III, respectively: In section II the authors deal with text types, media, and practices of internal science communication. Section (...)
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  24. added 2020-05-19
    Antirrealismo científico constructivista, lenguaje y realidad social.Sergio Aramburu - 2019 - Scientia in Verba Magazine 4:118-151.
    La vida en el laboratorio. La construcción social de los hechos científicos (Latour y Woolgar, 1979) sostiene que los hechos y las entidades cuya existencia ha sido establecida por la ciencia no son descubrimientos sino “construcciones sociales” llevadas a cabo por los científicos mediante “versiones” o “explicaciones ordenadas” al establecer acuerdos (“cierres de controversias”). Se sostiene, siguiendo la terminología de la filosofía de la ciencia actual, que este argumento es una forma de antirrealismo científico lingüístico, tesis sustentada también por autores (...)
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  25. added 2020-05-12
    A Pluralistic Approach to Interactional Expertise.Kathryn S. Plaisance & Eric B. Kennedy - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 47:60-68.
    The concept of interactional expertise – characterized by sociologists Harry Collins and Robert Evans as the ability to speak the language of a discipline without the corresponding ability to practice – can serve as a powerful way of breaking down expert/non-expert dichotomies and providing a role for new voices in specialist communities. However, in spite of the vast uptake of this concept and its potential to fruitfully address many important issues related to scientific expertise, there has been surprisingly little critical (...)
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  26. added 2020-04-11
    Problem Aksiologis Penggunaan Subjek Manusia Dalam Kasus Hipotermia Nazi.Banin Diar Sukmono - 2017 - Cogito: Jurnal Mahasiswa Filsafat 4 (1):45-57.
    Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memperlihatkan pentingnya prinsip penghargaan atas subjek dalam penelitian ilmiah. Dengan menjadikan kasus hipotermia Nazi sebagai contoh, artikel ini akan menunjukkan masalah yang terjadi saat prinsip penghargaan atas subjek absen dalam andaian aksiologis penelitian. Metode yang digunakan dalam artikel ini adalah evaluasi kritis dalam tataran prinsip dan kerangka riset. Hasil evaluasi menunjukkan bahwa ketidakhadiran prinsip penghargaan atas subjek adalah konsekuensi logis atas lemahnya kerangka riset yang dijalankan Nazi dalam penelitian hipotermianya. Dengan kata lain, problem non-epistemik yang tidak (...)
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  27. added 2020-03-14
    Bogdanov and the Theory of Two Sciences.Agustin Ostachuk - 2015 - Sociologia Em Rede 5 (5):114-118.
    What is the relation between science and ideology? Are they incompatible, complementary or the same thing? Should science avoid “contamination” from ideology? Is there an only way to do science? Does anyone of them lead to the same results and give us the same view of the world? We will focus on the figure of Alexander Bogdanov, Russian physician and philosopher, in order to discuss these and other relevant topics. His theories gave birth to what may be called later “the (...)
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  28. added 2020-03-14
    The Theory of Two Sciences: Bourgeois and Proletarian Science.Agustin Ostachuk - 2015 - Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad 10 (Suppl 1):191-194.
    What is the relation between science and ideology? Are they incompatible, complementary or the same thing? Should science avoid “contamination” from ideology? Is there an only way to do science? Does anyone of them lead to the same results and give us the same worldview? We will focus on the figure of Alexander Bogdanov, Russian physician and philosopher, in order to discuss these and other relevant topics. His theories gave birth to what may be called later “the theory of two (...)
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  29. added 2020-03-10
    Astrobiology and Society in Europe Today.Klara Anna Capova, Erik Persson, Tony Milligan & David Dunér (eds.) - 2018 - Springer.
    This book describes the state of astrobiology in Europe today and its relation to the European society at large. With contributions from authors in more than 20 countries and over 30 scientific institutions worldwide, the document illustrates the societal implications of astrobiology and the positive contribution that astrobiology can make to European society. The book has two main objectives: 1. It recommends the establishment of a European Astrobiology Institute (EAI) as an answer to a series of challenges relating to astrobiology (...)
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  30. added 2020-03-04
    Revealing the Analytical Structure and Some Intrinsic Major Difficulties of the Contingentist/Inevitabilist Issue.Léna Soler - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (2):230-241.
    The paper introduces precise definitions of the inevitabilist and contingentist positions. On this basis, it reveals the analytical structure and some inherent difficulties of the contingentist/inevitabilist issue. It then discusses some of these difficulties, relying on the thought-experiment of a ‘divided physics’. Along the way, it investigates the kinds of differences that two alternative physics should present, if they are to give rise to non-benign forms of contingentism.Keywords: Contingency; Inevitabilism; Incommensurability; Theory-comparison; Scientific realism; Constructivism.
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  31. added 2020-03-04
    Science, Technology and Society: A Philosophical Perspective. [REVIEW]José Penalva - 2007 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 22 (1):119-120.
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  32. added 2020-02-26
    Comment on David G. Anderson & Dmitry V. Arzyutov, “The Etnos Archipelago: Sergei M. Shirokogoroff and the Life History of a Controversial Anthropological Concept”.Jeff Kochan - 2019 - Current Anthropology 60 (6):741-73 (pp. 760-1).
    In response to Anderson and Arzyutov’s paper, I argue that ambiguities in the Russian social-scientific concept of “etnos” reveal its place in what I call a “field style” for thinking and doing science. Tolerance for ambiguity is, I suggest, a methodological strength of the field sciences. I support these reflections by also addressing the etnos concept’s origins in the complex history of Ukrainian nationalism.
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  33. added 2020-02-11
    Otto Hahn and the Rise of Nuclear Physics.James Robert Brown - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (2):317-318.
  34. added 2020-02-11
    Studies in the History of Science in India. Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya.Dale Riepe - 1984 - Philosophy of Science 51 (4):698-699.
  35. added 2020-02-11
    Contemporary Issues in Theory and Research: A Metasociological Perspective" . William E. Snizek, Ellsworth R. Fuhrman, Michael K. Miller.George C. Homans - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (1):153-154.
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  36. added 2020-02-11
    The Way of Discovery: An Introduction to the Thought of Michael Polanyi. Richard Gelwick.Harry Prosch - 1979 - Ethics 89 (2):211-216.
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  37. added 2020-02-11
    Toward a Science of Man in Society: A Positive Approach to the Integration of Social Knowledge. K. William Kapp.Leon J. Goldstein - 1963 - Philosophy of Science 30 (2):198-200.
  38. added 2020-02-11
    Philosophy, Science and the Sociology of Knowledge.Kurt H. Wolff - 1963 - Philosophy of Science 30 (1):89-93.
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  39. added 2020-02-11
    The Idea of a Social Science and Its Relation to Philosophy. [REVIEW]H. M. Lubasz - 1959 - Ethics 70 (2):173-175.
  40. added 2020-02-11
    An Introduction to the History of Sociology. Harry Elmer Barnes.Harold Sheppard - 1951 - Philosophy of Science 18 (2):170-171.
  41. added 2020-02-11
    TVA and the Grass Roots: A Study in the Sociology of Formal Organization.Charles W. Wegener - 1950 - Ethics 61 (1):75-76.
  42. added 2020-02-11
    Our Knowledge of the External World; as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy. Bertrand Russell.C. D. Broad - 1915 - International Journal of Ethics 25 (2):259-263.
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  43. added 2020-02-11
    Buckle and His Critics: A Study in Sociology.J. M. Robertson.J. Bonar - 1896 - International Journal of Ethics 6 (4):522-523.
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  44. added 2020-02-07
    Residuality and Inconsistency in the Interpretation of Socio-Theoretical Systems.Christoforos Bouzanis & Stephen Kemp - 2019 - Sociological Theory 37 (3):282-292.
    This article addresses the interpretation and criticism of theoretical systems. Its particular focus is on how to assess the success of theories in dealing with some specific phenomenon. We are interested in how to differentiate between cases where a theory offers an unsatisfactory acknowledgment of a specified phenomenon and those where a theory offers a deeper, more systematic understanding. We address these metatheoretical issues by developing Parsons’s analysis of positive and residual categories in various respects, including a focus on mutual (...)
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  45. added 2020-02-05
    Citation Concept Analysis (CCA): A New Form of Citation Analysis Revealing the Usefulness of Concepts for Other Researchers Illustrated by Exemplary Case Studies Including Classic Books by Thomas S. Kuhn and Karl R. Popper.Lutz Bornmann, K. Brad Wray & Robin Haunschild - 2020 - Scientometrics 122 (2):1051-1074.
    In recent years, the full text of papers are increasingly available electronically which opens up the possibility of quantitatively investigating citation contexts in more detail. In this study, we introduce a new form of citation analysis, which we call citation concept analysis (CCA). CCA is intended to reveal the cognitive impact certain concepts—published in a highly-cited landmark publication—have on the citing authors. It counts the number of times the concepts are mentioned (cited) in the citation context of citing publications. We (...)
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  46. added 2020-02-05
    Philosophy of Science Viewed Through the Lense of “Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy” (RPYS).K. Brad Wray & Lutz Bornmann - 2015 - Scientometrics 102 (3):1987-1996.
    We examine the sub-field of philosophy of science using a new method developed in information science, Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS). RPYS allows us to identify peak years in citations in a field, which promises to help scholars identify the key contributions to a field, and revolutionary discoveries in a field. We discovered that philosophy of science, a sub-field in the humanities, differs significantly from other fields examined with this method. Books play a more important role in philosophy of science (...)
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  47. added 2020-01-23
    On the Ambivalence of the Aphorism in Sociological Theory.Thomas Crosbie & Jeffrey Guhin - 2019 - Sociological Theory 37 (4):381-400.
    Sociologists have long been taken by certain pithy expressions from the founders of the discipline. We propose here both a new explanation for the endurance of these statements as well as an analysis of the power, limitations, and possibilities of aphorisms. By drawing from the critical scholarship concerned with aphorisms, we demonstrate that some of the allure of the classical sociological texts derives from their form, and particularly their reliance on the relative autonomy of the aphorism. Through examining Marx’s “opiate (...)
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  48. added 2020-01-03
    The Interdisciplinarity Revolution.Vincenzo Politi - 2019 - Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 34 (2):237.
    Contemporary interdisciplinary research is often described as bringing some important changes in the structure and aims of the scientific enterprise. Sometimes, it is even characterized as a sort of Kuhnian scientific revolution. In this paper, the analogy between interdisciplinarity and scientific revolutions will be analysed. It will be suggested that the way in which interdisciplinarity is promoted looks similar to how new paradigms were described and defended in some episodes of revolutionary scientific change. However, contrary to what happens during some (...)
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  49. added 2020-01-03
    The Ideological Matrix of Science: Natural Selection and Immunity as Case Studies.Agustin Ostachuk - 2019 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 15 (1):182-213.
    The modern concept of ideology was established by the liberal politician and philosopher Destutt de Tracy, with the objective of creating an all-embracing and general science of ideas, which followed the sensualist and empiricist trend initiated by Locke that culminated in the positivism of Comte. Natural selection and immunity are two key concepts in the history of biology that were strongly based on the Malthusian concept of struggle for existence. This concept wrongly assumed that population grew faster than the means (...)
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  50. added 2020-01-03
    Bilimsel Bilginin Sosyolojisi ve Keşif-Gerekçelendirme Ayrımı Üzerine.Alper Bilgehan Yardımcı - 2019 - FLSF (Felsefe Ve Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi) 1 (28):387-403.
    Bilime ve bilimsel bilgiye yönelik yaygın görüş, bilimin objektif bir faaliyet olduğudur. Bu görüş bilimsel bilginin elde edilmesinde, bilim insanlarının nesnel bir tavır sergilediğini ve onların sosyal faktörlerden etkilenmediğini varsaymaktadır. Yirminci yüzyılın ikinci çeyreğinde, Viyana Çevresi ve Karl Popper'ın düşünceleri ile bilimde sosyolojik ve psikolojik unsurların keşif bağlamı içerisinde görülebileceği, bilimsel kuramların ve araştırmaların gerekçelendirilmesine yönelik girişimlerin ise yalnızca nesnel, epistemik çalışmalardan oluştuğu ileri sürülmektedir. Keşif bağlamı ve gerekçelendirme bağlamı adı altında yapılan bu ayrıma ilişkin iddialar, Thomas Kuhn'un 1962 yılında (...)
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1 — 50 / 2660